Planned Operations of World War II

Soviet Union

Saturn (1942) — Proposed major attack following the Stalingrad encirclement; revised to Little Saturn.

Sweden

Rädda Danmark ("Save Denmark") (1945) — Swedish plan to liberate Denmark before the country was occupied by the Soviet Union (cancelled because of German surrender)
          Rädda Själland (1945) — Swedish landings on Zealand
          Rädda Bornholm (1945) — Swedish landings on Bornholm

Spain

C (1939) — Spanish plan for the seizure of Gibraltar

British Empire

Plan W (1942) – Joint British/Irish planning to deal with a German invasion of Ireland.
Operation Accolade (1942) proposed British occupation of Rhodes, and subsequently, failed occupation of the Dodecanese
Operation Constellation (1943) — one of several proposals to retake the Channel Islands
          Operation Condor (1943) — proposal to retake Jersey
          Operation Concertina (1943) — proposal to retake Alderney
          Operation Coverlet (1943) — proposal to retake Guernsey
Operation Comet (1944) - Early Version of Market Garden
Operation Ventilate (1945) — cancelled assault crossing of the Maas by British 3rd Infantry Division
Operation Backbone & Backbone II (1942 & 1943) — contingency plans to occupy Spanish Morocco and area around Gibraltar if Germans entered Spain
Operation Challenger (?) — plan to seize Ceuta
Operation Culverin (1943) — Proposed allied invasion of northern Sumatra
Operation Zipper (1945) Planned British seaborne landing in Malaya.
Operation Catherine (1939) British plan to gain control of Baltic Sea
Operation Jupiter (1942) — suggested invasion of Norway
Operation R 4 (1940) — Planned British invasion of Norway

United States of America

Giant II — cancelled landing of U.S. 82nd Airborne near Rome.
Operation Olympic
Operation Coronet
Operation Roundup (1942) - plan to invade Europe in event of German or Soviet collapse.
          Operation Sledgehammer (1942) - establishment of beachhead in Cherbourg or Brest.
          Operation Roundhammer – Revised version of Roundup.

Nazi Germany

Fall Blau (Case Blue) 1935 - German defense planning on the eastern border, simultaneously with Fall Rot
Fall Rot (Case Red) 1935 - German defense planning on the western border, simultaneously with Fall Blau. The 1940 version was used to invade France.
Fall Otto (Case Otto) 1937 - German plan to occupy Austria
Fall Richard 1937 - German contingency planning for Soviet takeover of Spain
Fall Rot 1937 - German planned invasion of Czechoslovakia
Fall Grün 1938 - German plan for invasion of Czechoslovakia
Fall Otto 1938 - German plan to establish a puppet government in Austria
Unternehmen Nordwest 1939 - German study for a potential invasion of Britain; parts of Operation Nordwest were integrated into Operation Seelöwe
Plan Z 1939 - German plan to expand the Kriegsmarine to match the strength of the British Royal Navy
Unternehmen Felix 1940 - German planned invasion of Gibraltar via the Iberian Peninsula

Unternehmen Seelöwe 1940 - German planned invasion of Britain; anglicised as 'Sealion'
          Fall Grün (Case Green) 1940 - German plan for a diversionary invasion of Ireland in support of Operation Seelöwe
           Unternehmen Grüne Bewegung 1940 - German planned landing at Brighton, England; part of Operation Seelöwe
           Unternehmen Herbstreise (Autumn Journey) 1940 - German planned diversionary invasion of Scotland, Britain; part of Operation Seelöwe
           Unternehmen Hummel 1940 - German intelligence gathering for Operation Seelöwe

Dietrich (1942) — planned counter-attack to relieve Sixth Army using Grossdeutschland & LSSAH. Unimplemented.
Unternehmen Ikarus 1940 - German planned invasion of Iceland in response to British Operation Fork; originally planned to launch in conjunction with Operation Seelöwe
Unternehmen Kathleen 1940 - German planned invasion of Ireland
Unternehmen Lucie 1940 - German planned invasion of the Dutch island of Texel in the North Sea
Unternehmen Löwe 1940 - German planned invasion of Britain; precursor of Operation Seelöwe
Unternehmen Spark 1940 - German planned assassination of Adolf Hitler and coup d'état against the Nazi German government
Unternehmen Tannenbaum (Christmas Tree) 1940 - German planned invasion of Switzerland
Unternehmen Wal 1940 - German aborted plan to coordinate actions with Scottish and Welsh nationalist groups
Unternehmen Fritz 1941 - German planned invasion of the Soviet Union; later abandoned in favor of Operation Barbarossa
Unternehmen Isabella 1941 - German planned invasion of the Iberian Peninsula
Unternehmen Strafe 1941 - German planned invasion of Bulgaria
Unternehmen Südwind 1941 - German defense plan against a general uprising in occupied France
Unternehmen Alpenveilchen (Alpine Violet) 1941 - German aborted planned intervention during the Italian invasion of Albania
Unternehmen Sportpalast 1942 - Failed planned naval operation to attack Arctic convoys PQ-12 and QP-8
Fall Anton 1942 - German occupation of Vichy France with Italian support in 1942
Unternehmen Bettelstab 1942 - German planned offensive at Leningrad, USSR
Unternehmen Donnerschlag 1942 - German planned break-out movement from Stalingrad, USSR
Unternehmen Gertrud 1942 - German planned response in case of Turkey joining the Allies
Unternehmen Gisella 1942 - German planned invasion of the Iberian peninsula; revised from Operation Isabella
Unternehmen Herbstzeitlose 1942 - German cancelled planned plan to advance to the Don and Volga Rivers in the Caucasus region of Southern USSR
Unternehmen Herkules 1942 - German planned airborne invasion of Malta
Unternehmen Hornbläser 1942 - German planned attack on Alexandria harbor, Egypt
Unternehmen Ilona 1942 - German planned invasion of the Iberian peninsula; revised from Operation Isabella
Unternehmen Lila 1942 - German attempt to capture French fleet at Toulon, France
Unternehmen Möwe I 1942 - German planned operation to sabotage aluminum factories in southern Scotland, Britain
Unternehmen Nordlicht 1942 - German planned attack on Leningrad, USSR; formerly planned as Operation Feuerzauber
Unternehmen Nordpol 1942 - German cancelled planned operation east of Moscow, USSR
Unternehmen Pastorious 1942 - German plan to sabotage industrial targets at Long Island, New York, United States
Unternehmen Schamil 1942 - German planned operation to secure Caucasus oil fields in Southern USSR using paratroopers
Unternehmen Silberstreife 1942 - German planned operations against Allied convoys to Murmansk, USSR
Unternehmen Brunhild 1943 - German planned evacuation from the Caucasus region in Southern USSR
Unternehmen Husar 1943 - German cancelled planned anti-shipping operation in Kara Sea by Lützow
Unternehmen Michael 1943 - German cancelled planned evacuation of Crimea
Unternehmen Nürnberg 1943 - German planned response in case of an Allied invasion of the Iberian Peninsula, focusing largely around the defense of the Pyrenees passes
Unternehmen Panzerfaust 1943 - German operation to kidnap Miklós Horthy's son to prevent Horthy from siding with the Allies; codename later changed to Maus
Unternehmen Rabat 1943 - German plan to kidnap the Pope from the Vatican City
Unternehmen Schwarz 1943 - German plan in the event of an Italian surrender
Unternehmen Ulm 1943 - German planned aerial bombing operation against Soviet industries in the Ural Mountains
Unternehmen Wunderland II 1943 - German planned naval operation involving Admiral Scheer in the East Siberian Sea
Fall Falke 1944 - German defense plan in case of an Allied invasion of Norway
Fall Forelle I 1944 - German defense plan in case of an Allied invasion of the Balkans via the Adriatic Sea
Fall Forelle II 1944 - German defense plan in case of an Allied invasion of the Balkans via the Aegean Sea
Unternehmen Freischütz 1944 - German cancelled planned operation to occupy the island of Vis off Croatia, Yugoslavia
Unternehmen Großer Schlag 1944 - German planned mass-deployment of fighters against Allied bombers
Unternehmen Herbstnebel 1944 - German rejected plan to withdraw German troops in Italy behind the Po River
Unternehmen Laura 1944 - German proposed planned evacuation of Courland, Latvia
Fall Marder 1944 - German defense plan in case of an Allied invasion of Italy; activated after Allies launched Operation Shingle
Fall Marder I 1944 - German defense plan in case of an Allied invasion of Italy via the Ligurian Sea; part of Fall Marder
Fall Marder II 1944 - German defense plan in case of an Allied invasion of Italy via the Adriatic Sea; part of Fall Marder
Unternehmen Martin 1944 - German planned attack of the Ardennes region as proposed by Gerd von Rundstet; rejected by Adolf Hitler for being too conservative
Unternehmen Richard 1944 - German defense plan in case of an Allied invasion of Italy; activated after Allies launched Operation Shingle
Unternehmen Tanne West 1944 - German planned invasion of the Åland Islands in the Baltic Sea from Finland
Unternehmen Walküre 1944 - German attempt to overthrow Adolf Hitler, written under the cover of a plan to foil potential worker rebellions; Anglicized as 'Valkyre'
Unternehmen Zeppelin 1944 - German failed operation to destroy power plants in Moscow, USSR
Unternehmen Aktion 24 1945 - German aborted planned suicide aerial attack on bridges over river Weichsel in attempt to disrupt Soviet supply lines
Unternehmen Alpenfestung 1945 - German plan for a redoubt in the German Alps
Unternehmen Gertraud 1945 - German planned aerial bombing of hydropower plants east of Moscow, USSR

Imperial Japan

Operation FS 1944 - Japanese cancelled plan to isolate Australia by capturing New Caledonia, Samoa, and Fiji
Operation Ketsu-Go 1945 - Japanese defense plan against potential American invasion of the Japanese home islands
Operation Ken 1945 - Cancelled Japanese operation to use transports to land suicide troops on American airfields in the Mariana Islands
Operation Kon-Go 1945 - Cancelled Japanese offensive against American ships using manned torpedoes

Bibliography
Wikipedia

Divine Wind

by Mitch on December 30, 2012 0 Comments

Pacific War timeline, with POD set in October 1942: Japanese carriers establish naval supremacy around Guadalcanal.

By October 1942, the 1st Marine Division, supported by the fleet of the United States Navy, had secured a large portion of the island of Guadalcanal, including the strategic airbase at Lunga Point known as Henderson Field. But Japanese Army and Navy units were putting the Americans under constant stress, and disease was taking its toll upon the Marines. During August 1942, in the Battle of the Eastern Solomons, an American carrier task force led by Vice Admiral Jack Fletcher repulsed a Japanese attack led by Admiral Isoruku Yamamoto. On the ground, Major General Kiyo Kawaguchi’s attack in September at the Battle of Bloody Ridge ended in disaster.

Japanese brass planned another attempt to knock the Americans off of Guadalcanal, involving a land offensive and a sea attack simultaneously. The ground attack, led ...

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The Anglo/American Nazi War

by Mitch on December 30, 2012 0 Comments

Preface

Before examining the actual final conflict between the Western democracies, chiefly Canada, Great Britain, and the United States and Nazi Germany, it is worth reviewing that circumstances that brought the world to that critical juncture.

In 1939 Nazi Germany, then also called the “Third Reich” or simply the Reich, had initiated the European Phase of the Second World War with the invasion of Poland, At the time of the invasion Germany was in a state of near alliance with the Soviet Union with Soviet oil and agriculture providing much of Reich’s fuel and food. Poland was supported by both France and Great Britain and the two Western states had made clear that an attack on Poland would lead to war. It has long been debated why the Democracies waited until the Polish crisis to confront the still developing German war machine, but the decisions made in both London ...

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Featured Book: The Burning Mountain

by Mitch on September 14, 2012 0 Comments



The Burning Mountain

Alfred Coppel

America’s first atom bomb test fails and the US is forced to invade Japan in 1946.

Most Americans are familiar with the end of World War II, that the war ended after the dropping of two atomic bombs on Japan. What many, if not most, Americans do not know is that a detailed plan for the invasion of Japan had been mapped out and would have been put into place if the atomic bombs did not work or were not ready.

The plan consisted of two parts. Operation Olympic would have been the invasion of Kyushu, the southernmost major island in Japan. American forces, with minimal involvement of other allied nations, would have invaded the island and taken over enough of the island to build numerous air bases. The second part of the plan was Operation Coronet, which was to be the invasion of ...

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Action on Crete

by Mitch on August 29, 2012 0 Comments

The Allies wanted to hold the island of Crete as the site of an air base from which bombing raids against the Ploesti oilfields, vital to the German war machine, could be launched. However, the demands of other fronts left Crete weakly garrisoned by just 35,000 men (British, Commonwealth, and Greek troops), poorly armed and subject to noncohesive command. Moreover, the harsh, mountainous terrain of Crete impeded defense. Artillery and air support were virtually nil.

 

On May 20, German paratroops of Fliegerkorps 11, under General Kurt Student, landed at both ends of Crete. The Allies responded by broadcasting defenders across the island, spreading them thin. For their part, the Germans had underestimated the size of the island’s garrison and had to call for reinforcements from the island of Milos. The troop transports were either dispersed or sunk by British air and sea attacks. Despite this blow to the ...

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Unternehmen Seelöwe, 1941

by Mitch on August 15, 2012 0 Comments

There are several possible outcomes, but they all have one thing in common: the fall of the British Islands in early 1941. This meta-POD is triggered by various unfavourable events for Britain during the course of the war.

  • Heute Europa, morgen... - Best-case scenario for Germany. A gruesome nightmare. Comparable to "The Man In The High Castle", albeit the US is not occupied.
  • D-Day 1946 - Commonwealth, US and Soviet troops invade Europe to rid it of the Nazi yoke. The outcome leads to a slightly different Cold War.
  • Habsburg Restoration - After a horrible war, Europe is liberated from Nazism and Fascism. A severely weakened Soviet Union is on the brink of collapse and Emperor Otto I becomes ruler of the democratic Danube Confederation, while former Prussia is isolated. This is the liberated Europe Churchill originally envisioned.
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What If the Allies Had Not Broken the German Naval Code?

by Mitch on August 10, 2012 0 Comments

By Mark Grimsley 

When it was finally revealed in 1974 that the Allies had been reading the encrypted German Enigma transmissions throughout much of the war—intelligence the Allies called Ultra—historians initially expected the news to shed light on the conflict's numerous turning points, which it did. They also thought it would likely emerge as a crucial factor in some of them, which it didn't. Although Ultra was a major asset to Allied intelligence, few historians now consider it to have been the decisive factor in any major operation—with one exception.

The exception was the Battle of the Atlantic, the war's longest campaign. It began on September 3, 1939, the day Great Britain entered the war. It did not truly cease until May 8, 1945, the day Germany surrendered. The battle was crucial. If Britain did not receive enough supplies, it might not be ...

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Kriegmarine Command Doctrine

by Mitch on August 3, 2012 0 Comments

German Kenngruppenheft (a U-boat codebook with grouped key codes)

The strategic and operational impact of Allied codebreaking also played a critical role in ensuring Allied victory in the Atlantic. The history of efforts to break the German codes during the Second World War—“the Ultra secret”—is well known. The Kriegsmarine’s codes were among the last to be routinely read, but by 1941 British codebreakers were beginning to penetrate the German navy’s main code. Although the definitive impact of codebreaking is impossible to establish, Hinsley, the author of the official and most authoritative account of Ultra and its significance, wrote of the battle of the Atlantic: “The very fact that the struggle was so prolonged and so finely balanced suggests that the ability to read [German] communications must have been an asset of crucial importance to the Allies.” Codebreaking allowed the Allies to reroute shipping, reinforce threatened convoys ...

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Battle of Britain 1940

by Mitch on August 1, 2012 0 Comments

Spitfires Over the Needles by Philip West.

Battle of Britain, July 1940. Spitfires of 609 Squadron returning to their satellite station airfield at Warmwell to re-arm and re-fuel, following an intercept mission against enemy aircraft trying to disrupt shipping along the South Coast of England. Like many other RAF Squadrons, No 609 the (West Riding) Auxiliary Squadron distinguished itself in many great air battles with honour and courage.

 

The very visible French failure on the Western Front was followed by the glories of the Battle of Britain. From the summer into the early autumn, RAF fighters based in southern England destroyed 50 per cent more enemy bombers and fighters than they lost. The resulting defeat of the Luftwaffe by the RAF in the summer of 1940 was in many respects the culmination of steady planning in air defence over many years. One crucial aspect was completely unexpected and unprepared for ...

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Why Sealion is not an option for Hitler to win the war

by Mitch on July 21, 2012 4 Comments

One of the more common suggestions that crop up at all-too regular intervals goes along the lines of: "If Hitler hadn't switched from bombing airfields to bombing cities, then Operation Sealion would have worked."

 

Unfortunately for these suggestions, the plan for Sealion was perhaps the most flawed plan in the history of modern warfare. Getting it to a workable state requires so many changes that an author's artistic license would be revoked.

 

What follows is an analysis of Sealion in OTL.

 

Operation Sealion - The Background

When France collapsed, in mid-June 1940, the German staff had not even considered, never mind studied, the possibility of an invasion of Britain. Troops had received precisely zero training for seaborne and landing operations, and nothing had been done to gather the means of getting troops across the Channel.

 

At the time, the balance of naval forces in the region were as follows ...

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Why Operation Sealion Wouldn't Work

by Mitch on July 21, 2012 0 Comments

    The Second World War has always been a favorite stomping ground of alternate historians, especially the writers of alternate history novels. Probably the most popular single alternate history in the western world is one where the Nazis win the war. In order to accomplish this, the creators of many timelines utilize Operation Sealion, a German plan in 1940 for the invasion of Britain. Unfortunately, what most don't realize is that Sealion was nothing more than a pipe dream - utterly unworkable in any alternate history at all similar to the history we are familiar with. In this essay, I will examine the various reasons why Operation Sealion would not work, and could not be made to work (without _extremely_ large changes) in an alternate timeline. Check out my own Unification timeline for an example of the level of changes necessary for a German invasion of Britain to succeed.

 

    There are ...

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Older Posts Page 1 of 11.
What If?: Strategic Alternatives of WWII

What If?: Strategic Alternatives of WWII

World War Two was full of what if's and should have beens. Questions that beg for ...

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